The slaughter of the
An unknown story that has been artificially hidden from the official
The Aetolia and Akarnania the Karleli as saying then that for specificity was slow to move from the time of the 1821 uprising.
The first exegersiaki action was the attack of the Turkish chieftain Makris' convoy carrying the annual tribute from Mesologi to Nafpaktos to be sent to Istanbul.
Makris killed the Turks and seized the money thus lighting the match that started the fire which would follow shortly thereafter. (1)
From the day of March 5, 1821 the air of rebellion started blowing in Karleli.
This was followed by several events leading to the seizure of these VRAHORI (11 June) and then the Zapanti (July 26). (2)
The Zapanti was almost purely Ottoman settlement. He was poor and generally second-class Turks, less than those of VRAHORI. From what was shown but hard fighters because they resisted with extraordinary courage in the Christian besiegers. In one of the final exit of the Turks, Christians killed eighteen of them. Cut off the heads of the dead and paloukosan towards the besieged relatives. (3)
After bloody attacks, the Turks were forced to capitulate and delivering Zapanti. The arrogant and barbaric behavior of ungulates atachton Christians, rapes and massacres of the poor civilians had exceeded the "normal" level for the season (as many call it) already on the facts of occupation of VRAHORI 40 days ago. These events were expanded certification of hatred of the beast of racism that can nest in the most popular revolt.
When most of the primacy of Christian poliorkiton VRAHORI became undeniable, the first Albanian mercenaries fled, apparently sharing their lives with money or old ntaraveria Redeeming the chieftains, to destroy the surrounding mountains after being mugged by captains. The wealthy Turks and officials who were the majority community VRAHORI, survived fygadefomenoi sharing their lives, either with money or with the "value" of the title. Probably be saved with them and very few rich Jews (some show one). The other, the entire Jewish community and the few poor Turkish prisoners were massacred entirely from bloodthirsty furious groups 'winners'.
Obviously, however, the national character of the occupation of VRAHORI of June 11, 1821 (the Agriniotes recently began to celebrate) left no room for great reporting on this little holocaust. The mouths of the elders, those who had heard the reported truthfully and in a low voice. As an information faint, minor. Like many researchers in the region except Gerasimos Papatrechas, and which is, however, justifies the gego-nos as "normal" for the season.
They slaughtered them all. Men, women, elderly, children. (4)
The writer is a historian. But whoever dealt with the massacre of Jews in Vrahori can not search the path and the tufted antievraismou in the Karleli and Epirus.
The eruption of the uprising of '21 was a time when anti-Semitism in the Balkans had a flare. Especially on the continent and Karleli from the 18th century (the time that the Kosmas Aito-burning), had its own character, its own dimensions. It was the time when Arvanites traders entered the market dynamic of flea markets that until then was a 'space' Jewish. The Jews had the exclusivity in the organization of flea markets, long-established as the pioneers of the area merchants. In this contributed to rapid population growth during the 15th century after European persecution, especially in the Ionian Islands. (5) The knowledge about the arts, commerce and agriculture, made them dominate the marketplace, but also give a boost to the economy and the welfare of people, carrying their culture. Should therefore be a hit this elite can be consolidated in one market segment. (6)
The only way to Epirus traders to accomplish this was to create their own Christian bazaars, since the majority of the population were Christians. Thus, the propaganda (which essentially supported by Cosmas of Aetolia) against the Jews, so he took a religious character and similar fanaticism. In almost a century (1750-1820) cultivated the bias and demonology that led to massacres like that of VRAHORI. The Arvanites merchants financed the world and around his sermons slowly erected a Christian bazaars Saturday which was the peak of anti-Semitic propaganda (Hebrew bazaars were only Sunday). (7)
Cosmas of Aetolia, to be able to commute daily from the flea market Saturday to Sunday joint, the most katangeltiko and insulting anti-Jewish speech. In Vrahori stayed and preached from 1759 until 1762. He left and returned in 1775 where he created a blurring of the roles of schools. (8)
"The Jew in slaughters a sheep and half the emprosthinon the State through the ground and the rear moutzonei and sell to the Christians to their magarisei (Cosmas of Aetolia)
... "How to Hold your heart to buy merchandise from Jews; and white then to spend life to draw any Christianopoulos to slay to get his blood to her, and societies? So Christians I do not buy anything from them.
They taught the World in sermons. On the other, of course, to be OK with Christian teachings, he said: "Hence my brothers, who penalize Christians or Jews or Turks, be unfair to give back because they are not seeing katiramenon kammian prokopin.
Schools of Kosmas estine with the sponsorship of Epirus and the merchants were dependent on again the same way.
The pupil of Cosimo sapphire Christodoulides and Zafiris or Rammeniatis, says: "... The sacred Cosmas epigen again in Ioannina, and first hand ekatapeise Christians to change the common home Sunday of the bargain in the Saturday, which kept them eproxenise (Jews) megistin damage.
Second life has declared the obvious enemies, and they are ready any time to do any evil against Christians. Thirdly, wanting to get rid of heads of Christians nity nity long Fountas and the like, all of which igorazon of the Jews, the edidaske that is dirty, so that on the Christians by the theoktonoi the molynousi, and not the agorazosi entirely. (9)
So the war, the Jews were chased and slander to Ali Pasha, that is an agent of Russian policy. The Pasha arrested him and escaped the Arvanites merchants, paying a large sum as ransom. Of course, not escaped death. In later hanged on 24 August 1779, officials of Kurt Pasha and he was charged in the death of Jewish merchants, as a result of the war.
Jews generally were mobilizing hatred of Christians and the Ottomans. This of course does not diminish their capacity, the dark years of poverty and ignorance that covered the population of the region, where thousands took refuge in the Balkans, after the persecution suffered in Europe. Nor, of course, the peaceful coexistence for centuries by the indigenous Jewish populations, at times, alternated in the region. The presence of Jews in Nafpaktos, but in Perista as well, at least from the 12th century, shows she the peaceful coexistence, as and in city Achelous (near in Today Charms). (10)
The slaughter of Jewish families in Vrahori in 1821 and the few poor Turks who had to share it with their lives (they 'value') is a fact that casts a shadow on June 11 as a day of celebration of 'liberation' occupation would say making better use of Tourkopolis. The excuse that was rich and oppressors not true historically because while the Jews were farmers, silk, artisans, and merchants and moneylenders. As such it was a larger number of Vlachs, Turks and Albanians. The last (and three) even had the authority and power. The pashalic the vilayets and armatoliks was in their hands.
If modern Agriniotes desperately needed the historic event that will connect with the past, among other things, have to look at the ashes VRAHORI and cries of the murdered civilians, victims of a savage racism.
Notes: 1. S. Trikoupis "Greek War History" p. 243, 2. C. Papatrechas "History in Agrinio" p. 213. 3. Ger. Papatrechas "History of Agrinio" p. 250. 4. Ger. Papatrechas "History of Agrinio" p. 242-245 "was the tragic end of the Jewish community. We have noted repeatedly in this and the climate of hostility that had become permanent over time. The tradition that preserves the "Captain Alexakis Vlachopoulos gave orders to the lads," the night you're all ready to cutlass, ie not to carry their rifles and pistols. This was, came all the cutlass from house to house massacred all Ovraious and only one escaped, which through Towards arrived at Lamia. Absent then not ever again in Ovraios Vrahori. P. 244. Theodore Havel is brief and refers to the event information completely. "Then the mob and the Agrinia epipeson against Jews, dieperasen man, woman and child in the mouth sword of death Avenging priest in any way AGRINIO), Papalexiou Dimas, despite the Proceeds Pickup erstwhile Turkish Jews, etyflosan self spines and katevasanisan to death ' . P. 245. S. Trikoupi "History Greek Revolution sel.248" The beys and other Turks accepted the protection of possible chieftains and none of them suffered the slightest. The Jews, however, suffered badly and many were killed ruthlessly, on the grounds that they had omopistoi draws on the streets of Istanbul's body and katedidan Patriarch Christians in hiding. Thus, Christians and Turkish students often seemed the same school during the Revolution, namely the Turkish school, which taught that they should punish the innocent for the acts of the perpetrators. C. Kordatos: Long story of Greece Volume X, p. 244. Referring to the seizure of VRAHORI Kordatos G. says: "Here, although the Turks surrendered on terms, not escaped. Dropped knife. But first slaughtered the Jews who were quite a few and dangerous competitors of Greek commerce. Only those who escaped have paid ransoms in many Varnakioti and Tzogka. 5. K. Simopoulos' foreign travelers to Greece p. 78. Italian Travel Guide, Knight G. Zuallardo (1856), Zakynthos, "Do not forget to get with you a little soap for laundry during the trip. If you can do but be patient until you catch the boat Zakynthos you will find there Christians or Jews to wash your clothes. Page 481: The English traveler William Lithgow (1609), Lefkada: "In the Bible Black English traveler finds that the island is inhabited only by Jews. Lefkada is granted to the Jews for the establishment of the Sultan | Bayezid II after their expulsion from Spain. M. Giolias "Cosmas of Aetolia 'p. 130, for harassment of Cosmas in the Ionian Islands. 6. C Kordatos: Reports on the contribution of Jews in the arts (crafts), agriculture, trade. Send Vakalopoulos Modern Greek History p. 53-54 7. Mark Giolias "Cosmas of Aetolia and the era of" p. 18, 1778 (aposp. chronicles the author's sketch) "Financial support of the world from street vendors and small shopkeeper in Epirus. P. 236-238. 8. Ger. Papatrechas p. 152. 9. Mark Giola "The world and the era of" p. 225 to 239. 10. F. Christopoulos: "The Jewish Community Lepanto" in Volume I 1968 p. 277 to 30 the yearbook company Stereolladitikon Studies. - Benjamin of Tudela, The journey of a Jew browser "Happy" magazine K.I.S. - Send Vakalopoulos "Modern Greek History" p. 53: "The Jews, intelligent craftsmen and tradesmen, myoun nationals of the Ottoman Empire in the various arts and inventions, win a lot and become owners of large commercial premises. Themselves bring their capital to larger companies ...». The French doctor Spon (1674) states: "In Nafpaktos Christians have two churches and three Jewish synagogues. Products exported from the port is leather, oil, tobacco, wheat, rice, barley. K. Simopoulos foreign travelers in Greece, "p. 692.